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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the
west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, while the North Sea to the east and the English
Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of
Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from
the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and
since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider
world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English lawóthe basis for the common law legal systems of many other
countries around the worldódeveloped in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by
other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first
industrialised nation. England's Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science.
England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in
the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor
and the Cotswolds). The former capital of England was Winchester until replaced by London in 1066. Today London is the largest
metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. England's population is
about 53 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, the South East and
conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions
during the 19th century. Meadowlands and pastures are found beyond the major cities.
The Kingdom of Englandówhich after 1284 included Walesówas a sovereign state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into
effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to
create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of
Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, the Irish Free State was established as a separate
dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create
the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.